There is a student who wants to assign a value to an array of N integers. He has to assign at least value of 1 to every number. For every two integer numbers at adjacent positions, the one with the higher integral value should be assigned a higher value. He wants to assign the least/minimum amount of values in total. find the minimum value in total assigned to the integers.

Input
The first line of the input contains an interger T denoting the number of test cases. Then T test cases follow. Each test case consists of two lines. The first line of each test case contains an integer N denoting the size of the array.The second line of each test case contain N space separated integers.

Output

Output the desired result corresponding to each test case in a separate line.

Constraints
1 <= T <= 100
1 <= N <= 100
1 <= A[i] <= 10^5

Example
Input
3
4
1 2 3 4
3
2 4 4
5
2 1 3 2 4

Output 10
4
8

Explanation: First test case:
First number is assigned a value = 1. Second number is at adjacent position to first number and has higher integral value. So, it should be assigned with higher value. So, he assigned second number a value of 2. Similarily he assigned third and fourth number, values of 3 and 4 respectively.
Therefore, in total, 1+2+3+4 =10

Second test case:
First number is assigned a value of 1. Since second number is greater than than the first number, he assigned a value of 2. Third number is equal to second number. So, it can be assigned a lower value. So, assigned a value of 1.
hence 1+2+1 = 4